Kubernetes Pod概述

本文主要介绍Pod,了Kubernetes对象模型中可部署的最小对象。

了解Pod

Pod是Kubernetes创建或部署的最小/最简单的基本单位,一个Pod代表集群上正在运行的一个进程。

一个Pod封装一个应用容器(也可以有多个容器),存储资源、一个独立的网络IP以及管理控制容器运行方式的策略选项。Pod代表部署的一个单位:Kubernetes中单个应用的实例,它可能由单个容器或多个容器共享组成的资源。

Docker是Kubernetes Pod中最常见的runtime ,Pods也支持其他容器runtimes。

Kubernetes中的Pod使用可分两种主要方式:

  • Pod中运行一个容器。“one-container-per-Pod”模式是Kubernetes最常见的用法; 在这种情况下,你可以将Pod视为单个封装的容器,但是Kubernetes是直接管理Pod而不是容器。
  • Pods中运行多个需要一起工作的容器。Pod可以封装紧密耦合的应用,它们需要由多个容器组成,它们之间能够共享资源,这些容器可以形成一个单一的内部service单位 - 一个容器共享文件,另一个“sidecar”容器来更新这些文件。Pod将这些容器的存储资源作为一个实体来管理。

关于Pod用法其他信息请参考:

每个Pod都是运行应用的单个实例,如果需要水平扩展应用(例如,运行多个实例),则应该使用多个Pods,每个实例一个Pod。在Kubernetes中,这样通常称为Replication。Replication的Pod通常由Controller创建和管理。更多信息,请参考Pods和控制器

Pods如何管理多个容器

Pods的设计可用于支持多进程的协同工作(作为容器),形成一个cohesive的Service单位。Pod中的容器在集群中Node上被自动分配,容器之间可以共享资源、网络和相互依赖关系,并同时被调度使用。

请注意,在单个Pod中共同管理多个容器是一个相对高级的用法,应该只有在容器紧密耦合的特殊实例中使用此模式。例如,有一个容器被用作WEB服务器,用于共享volume,以及一个单独“sidecar”容器需要从远程获取资源来更新这些文件,如下图所示:

pod diagram

Pods提供两种共享资源:网络和存储。

网络

每个Pod被分配一个独立的IP地址,Pod中的每个容器共享网络命名空间,包括IP地址和网络端口。Pod内的容器可以使用localhost相互通信。当Pod中的容器与Pod 外部通信时,他们必须协调如何使用共享网络资源(如端口)。

存储

Pod可以指定一组共享存储volumes。Pod中的所有容器都可以访问共享volumes,允许这些容器共享数据。volumes 还用于Pod中的数据持久化,以防其中一个容器需要重新启动而丢失数据。有关Kubernetes如何在Pod中实现共享存储的更多信息,请参考Volumes。

使用Pod

你很少会直接在kubernetes中创建单个Pod。因为Pod的生命周期是短暂的,用后即焚的实体。当Pod被创建后(不论是由你直接创建还是被其他Controller),都会被Kuberentes调度到集群的Node上。直到Pod的进程终止、被删掉、因为缺少资源而被驱逐、或者Node故障之前这个Pod都会一直保持在那个Node上。

注意:重启Pod中的容器跟重启Pod不是一回事。Pod只提供容器的运行环境并保持容器的运行状态,重启容器不会造成Pod重启。

Pod不会自愈。如果Pod运行的Node故障,或者是调度器本身故障,这个Pod就会被删除。同样的,如果Pod所在Node缺少资源或者Pod处于维护状态,Pod也会被驱逐。Kubernetes使用更高级的称为Controller的抽象层,来管理Pod实例。虽然可以直接使用Pod,但是在Kubernetes中通常是使用Controller来管理Pod的。

Pod和Controller

Controller可以创建和管理多个Pod,提供副本管理、滚动升级和集群级别的自愈能力。例如,如果一个Node故障,Controller就能自动将该节点上的Pod调度到其他健康的Node上。

包含一个或者多个Pod的Controller示例:

通常,Controller会用你提供的Pod Template来创建相应的Pod。

Pod模板

Pod模板是包含了其他对象(如Replication ControllersJobs和 DaemonSets)中的pod定义 。Controllers控制器使用Pod模板来创建实际需要的pod。

pod模板类似cookie cutters。“一旦饼干被切掉,饼干和刀将没有关系”。随后对模板的后续更改甚至切换到新模板对已创建的pod并没有任何的影响。

参考:宋净超博客

K8S中文社区微信公众号

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